PLace

Kafr 'Inan

Place
Kafr 'Inan — كَفْر عِنان
District
Galilee
Subdistrict
Acre
Average Elevation
325 m
Distance from Acre
33 km
Population
Year Arab Total
1931 246
1944/45 360 360
Land Ownership (1944/45) in dunums
Year Arab Public Total
1944/45 5424 403 5827
Land Use (1944/45) in dunums
Use Arab Public Total
Non-Cultivable & Built-up (Total)
Use Arab Public Total
Non-Cultivable 2468 203 2671
Built-up 21 21
2489 203 2692 (46%)
Cultivable (Total)
Use Arab Public Total
Cereal 1740 200 1940
Plantation and Irrigable 1195 1195
2935 200 3135 (54%)
Number of Houses (1931)
47

The village was situated on the lower slopes of the al-Zabul Mountains, at the place where they tapered off toward the south and became the al-Rama Plain. A secondary road linked it to a nearby highway that went from Acre to Safad. Kafr 'Inan was built over the Hebrew (and later Roman) village of Kefar Chananya; the word 'Inan might have been a corruption of Chananya. In 1596, Kafr 'Inan was a village in the nahiya of Jira (liwa' of Safad), with a population of 259. It paid taxes on goats and beehives and on its press, which was used to process either olives or grapes.

In the late nineteenth century, the village of Kafr 'Inan was built of stone and had 150–200 residents. The village's arable land contained gardens and olive trees. The entire population was Muslim. Their houses, made of stone with mud mortar, were bunched close together and were separated by semi–circular, narrow alleys. Many new houses were constructed during the final years of the Mandate.

Springs and domestic wells supplied the villagers' drinking water, and rainfall was the source of irrigation water. Olives and grain were the chief crops. Grain was grown in the nearby flat zones and valleys. In 1944/45 a total of 1,740 dunums was allotted to cereals; 1,195 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards, of which 1,145 were planted with olive trees. The village had an archaeological site that contained, among other things, the shafts and bases of columns, caves, a pool, and burial grounds.

Although Kafr 'Inan was probably overrun in Operation Hiram at the end of October 1948, the villagers stayed put, refusing to be pushed out like most of the population of the area. Units of the Golani Brigade probably forced their way into the village on 30 October, moving northwards in pursuit of retreating forces from the Arab Liberation Army. But Israeli historian Benny Morris finds that they were not expelled and that many remained in their homes for the next few weeks. He also reports, however, that during December 1948 and January 1949, 'pressure built up to evict [them],' along with the population of nearby al-Farradiyya and that of Saffuriyya, further south, near Nazareth. The excuse given by Israeli minority affairs minister Bechor Shitrit was that increasing numbers of exiled villagers were 'infiltrating' and that if this phenomenon were not halted, Israel would have to 'conquer the Galilee anew.' But the people of Kafr 'Inan and al-Farradiyya (across the sub-disctrict border, in Safad sub-disctrict) were not evicted until February 1949; half were transferred to villages inside Israeli–controlled territory and the other half were sent to the Triangle area, which was under Jordanian control. The Military Government said the evictions were necessary to assure 'security, law and order.' The Israeli policy in Galilee was to expel entire villages whenever possible; when this was impractical, the villages were filled up with people from other communities, so that villagers who had been displaced could not return.

Plans were made by the Jewish Agency to set up the settlement of Kefar Chananya to the south of the site in 1982 [Map of Settlement in Eretz Israel July, 1982], but it was established in 1989 on village land. Chazon, built in 1969 on the lands of al-Mansura in Tiberias sub-disctrict, and Parod, built in 1949 on the lands of al-Farradiyya in Safad sub-disctrict, are close to the site but are not on village land.

The site is covered with piles of stones that lie scattered around clumps of cactuses and fig trees. There are remains of a domed building on a slope facing the village and the small shrine of Shaykh Abu Hajar Azraq on the plain south-west of the village. The land around the site is forested and planted with fruit trees by the settlement of Parod.

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