About Places - All That Remains

The basis of the IPS list of the villages destroyed in the wake of the 1948 war is the monumental Palestine Index Gazetteer, the most comprehensive source available and one that has remained virtually untapped by other authors. The Gazetteer, compiled by the Survey Directorate of the Palestine Government (1945), includes over 10,000 place names in alphabetical order and designated by any of 46 classifications (e.g., village, hamlet, house, wadi, river, bridge, caves, antiquity site, marsh, ridge) along with the corresponding grid reference.

All names marked either "village" or "hamlet" were extracted and noted along with the appropriate grid references.1 With the help of the coordinates and maps, the names were divided according to district;2 those falling within the two districts that were not at all occupied in 1948 (Nablus and Ramallah) were eliminated. The resulting list of villages and hamlets by district was then checked against the villages listed in the corresponding districts of the Village Statistics 1945 (see Hadawi 1970), the last compilation of population and land ownership figures prepared by the Mandatory Government. It should be mentioned, however, that this source, while invaluable for other phases of the study (notably for population data and land ownership statistics) was more problematic in formulating a full list of villages. Having been compiled on the basis of fiscal and land taxation records, it is not comprehensive, and frequently combines two or more  distinct (insofar as they had distinct names) adjacent villages into single units. Nonetheless, the Village Statistics 1945, the primary source used by a number of authors, did serve as a useful corrective, and several villages not listed as villages or hamlets in the Gazetteer, such as Mazari' ed Daraja and Dardara (al-Dirdara) (Safad) and Umm Kalkha (Ramla), were added through recourse to the Village Statistics 1945. Comparison was also made to the Census of Palestine, the last official census taken in Mandatory Palestine. This source, however, was of little use in drawing up the list. The tendency to combine neighboring villages noted in the Statistics was even more marked in the 1931 census,3 and a number of villages existing in 1931 had disappeared in the intervening years for a number of reasons, including migration, economic decline, or Zionist land purchases.

The preliminary list derived mainly from the Gazetteer was then meticulously compared to a 1958 map (1:100,000) put out by the Survey of Israel, in fact an exact reproduction of the British Land Survey Map of 1944 with the addition of the 1949 armistice lines. All the villages falling outside the green line were eliminated. This left the more than 100 Arab villages within pre-1967 Israel that were not depopulated or destroyed during the war. These were removed from the preliminary list by combing through reliable post-1948 sources showing all the localities of Israel, Arab and Jewish. Such sources included the Israeli censuses of 1961, 1972, and 1983, which identify localities as Jewish or "non-Jewish," the Israeli Government's Central Bureau of Statistics List of Localities: Their Population and Codes (1989), and The Settlements of Israel and Their Archeological Sites by Ha-Reuveni (1974). Maps were also consulted, though they were found less useful since the smaller still-existing Arab villages frequently are not shown.

Through these various steps, a working list of some 436 villages was arrived at. It was at this point that the IPS refined its criteria for villages to be included in the study beyond the simple time-related factor-i.e., that the depopulation of the village had to have occurred during the 1948 war or in its immediate aftermath. No locality would be considered if it did not have a core of permanent structures. In this way, seminomadic encampments and Bedouin agriculturalists of the Negev were excluded from the study, even though tens of thousands of Bedouin, too, were made refugees (see Appendix "The Total Number of Refugees, Urban and Rural").4 Other requirements were that the village had to have its own name that distinguished it from other inhabited localities (in other words, it had to have a distinctive identity) and had to be inhabited by Arabic-speaking Palestinians on the eve of the war.

Several additional points should be made. First, no village was excluded for being too small provided the other criteria were met. While the aggregate average size of the villages ultimately included was over 800, and over one-quarter of the villages had populations exceeding 1,000, 25 villages on the final list had populations under 100; of these, 8 had populations under 50 (all based on year-end 1944 figures from Village Statistics 1945). One can assume that many of the villages for which population statistics were listed in the Mandate sources as "not available" would be very small.

Secondly, the IPS criterion was depopulation rather than total physical destruction. While the overwhelming majority of the villages-some 70 percent-were in fact razed, 8 villages on the final IPS list remained relatively intact from a physical standpoint, while an additional 7 are virtually intact.5 These villages were included because their original populations were either driven out or fled and were prevented from returning; the Arab houses were subsequently either resettled with Jews or left abandoned. One village was left on the list despite the fact that it continued to exist and was inhabited by Arabs: Akbara (Safad) was included because the entire original population had been driven out and the village was later resettled with "internal refugees" from Qaddita. (The houses of the original Akbara have recently been demolished and a new village of the same name has been built nearby.)

The real test for inclusion on the final list was site identification, in itself not always an easy task: the bulldozer and the ravages of time have sometimes conspired to leave few traces. In difficult cases, researchers would arrive in the vicinity (as indicated by the coordinates provided in the Palestine Gazetteer) with extremely detailed maps (1:20,000) showing caves, rock formations, springs, and other immutable landmarks as well as less permanent trees and cemeteries. These maps, both current and from the late Mandate period, were compared to each other and to the landscape in order to identify the site. Extreme cases were villages in the low flat lands of the Hula Basin region in Baysan, virtually devoid of natural landmarks, where the obliterated mud brick villages had been literally plowed under and turned into vast stretches of cultivation. In a few instances, Hebrew-speaking researchers enlisted the help of old-time members of nearby kibbutzes to find the exact spot. Even in less problematic areas, teams were frequently accompanied by guides or scouts who had grown up either in the villages themselves or in neighboring villages. A number of sites, particularly in mountainous areas, were difficult to reach except on foot through long circuitous routes. On some occasions, researchers, particularly those driving cars with easily identifiable West Bank license plates, were subject to harassment by residents of nearby Israeli settlements and harassment and even detention by security forces. Field research was carried out from 1987 to 1990.

Except for 13 villages located in closed military areas and one now engulfed by an Israeli settlement, the inhabitants of which did not permit access, the sites of all the villages on the working list were visited by teams either from Birzeit's Research and Documentation Center, the Galilee Center for Social Research in Nazareth, or, in the Jerusalem area, the Jaffa Center in Nazareth. Detailed written descriptions were prepared, and each site was extensively photographed, both with long shots to capture the overall setting, and with detailed closeups of what remained.

A number of villages were eliminated on the basis of the field research, either because they were discovered to have been largely vacated before the commencement of hostilities (such as Umm Kubai in Nazareth district and Jindas in Ramla district) or because they were found upon field research to have been temporary agglomerations.

The IPS working list was also carefully checked against the other existing lists, and discrepancies were looked into. A number of villages cited by some or most of the other sources were not included in the IPS list. Zarra'a (Baysan), for example, was excluded because its lands were discovered to have been purchased by the Jewish National Fund in the 1930s and a kibbutz, Tirat Tzvi, had been built on the site in 1938. Bayt Lahm, Waldheim (Umm al-'Amad), Sarona, and Wilhelma, all depopulated during the 1948 war, were excluded because, despite the presence of Arab workers and residents, they were not Palestinian villages but colonies set up by the German Templars at the end of the nineteenth century. Other discrepancies arose for definitional reasons. For example, a number of lists include Palestinian towns and cities such as Ramla, Lydda, Haifa, and Majdal, while others include the three villages of the Latrun salient (Imwas, Yalu, and Bayt Nuba), systematically razed much later, immediately following the 1967 war. Still other sources include Bedouin settlements lacking a core of permanent buildings. In all, some 151 villages not included on the IPS list appear on at least one other list.

Conversely, the IPS list contains a number of villages not cited by any other source. Khirbat Karraza (Safad), for example, was included because interviews with former villagers determined that it had been inhabited in 1948 and that it had a core of permanent stone structures. AI-'Imara and al-Khalasa (Beersheba) and Khirbat al Tannur (Jerusalem) were included because they had been listed as hamlets in the Palestine Gazetteer and field research confirmed their existence and conformity to our criteria. (For a more detailed discussion of and comparison with other sources, see Appendix "Palestinian Villages Depopulated in 1948: A Comparison of Sources").

The IPS's final list, then, includes 418 villages. All lie within the pre-1967 borders of Israel, except for al-Latrun, which was in the no-man's land between Israeli and Jordanian forces until 1967. We believe it is the most accurate list possible, being the only one based on the Gazetteer as its primary source and an exhaustive comparison with other sources. Most important, however, was the contribution of systematic field research, which had the last word; the list was not considered final until the entire survey of all the villages on the working list was completed.

  • 1. It should be noted that the Gazetteer does not define hamlet, but in general it appears to be related to size; many of the localities thus designated (72 out of the 418 on IPS's final list) have fewer than 400 inhabitants. However, this in not always systematic, as certain hamlets were larger than many classified as villages, such as Zanghariyya in Safad district, with 840 inhabitants in 1945.
  • 2. Actually "subdistrict" in the Mandate sources. See note 1 in "Notes on the Sources".
  • 3. The most egregious example of this is Dura in Hebron district, which amalgamated no fewer than 69 distinctly named localities. In most cases, of course, no more than two or three villages were lumped together.
  • 4. An account of the Bedouin expulsions from the Negev as well as of the Beersheba town expulsions is found in Falah (1989: 105-30).
  • 5. Of the 418 villages, 292 (70 percent) were totally destroyed; 90 villages (22 percent) were largely destroyed, which means that only a small percentage of the houses were left standing (20 villages in this category had only one surviving house). Eight villages (less than 2 percent) had only a small percentage of their houses destroyed, while 7 villages (less than 2 percent) survived but were taken over by Israeli settlers. These seven include: Tarbikha (Acre); 'Ayn Hawd, Balad al-Shaykh, al-Tira (Haifa); al-Safiriyya (Jaffa) and 'Ayn Karim and al-Maliha (Jerusalem). The level of destruction of 20 villages (5 percent) could not be determined: Of these, 13 were in closed security zones, 1 was inaccessible because it is incorporated in an Israeli settlement, and 6 had standing houses but the original number of houses was unknown.

The 418 villages presented in All That Remains are sorted into fourteen chapters, each corresponding to an administrative district, or qada',1 which was either partially or wholly occupied during the war. (As already noted, two administrative districts, Nablus and Ramallah, do not figure in the study at all, as neither was occupied in 1948.) Within each chapter or district, villages are arranged alphabetically. The sources used for the various sections of the entries, as well as certain editorial decisions, follow.


I. Basic Information

In cases where the village was known by more than one name, the less common follows in parentheses. Transliteration is according to a modified version of the Library of Congress system.

The grid references (PGR) were taken from the Palestine Index Gazetteer.

The straight-line distance from the village to the district center was measured on the map Palestine: Index to Villages and Settlements.

The average elevations were taken from the topographical map (1:100,000) prepared for the Survey of Palestine, 1941-1945 and from the map (1:20,000) included in the Survey of Palestine.

The 1945 land ownership and population figures are from Sami Hadawi (1970), Village Statistics 1945: A Classification of Land and Area Ownership in Palestine. The statistics themselves are exactly as they appear in the Mandate Government's 1945 Village Statistics (a largely internal document intended for government offices and a few interested private organizations) with one major difference: Hadawi amalgamated the original categories of "Muslim," "Christian," and "Other" (essentially Druze) into the single category "Arab." This change is reflected in both the population and land ownership statistics.

The land ownership figures, extracted by the Department of Land Settlement from the fiscal assessment records, reflect land holdings as at 1 April 1945. One might note that the "public lands" figure, in addition to the relatively minor item of land used for public buildings and roads, includes a number of categories of lands that were in fact cultivated and utilized by the villagers as if they held actual title.2

It should also be stressed that the population figures are not the result of an actual census but extrapolations as at year-end 1944 prepared by the Mandatory Government's Department of Statistics on the basis of the 1931 census. (Hadawi's work includes a lengthy explanation of the methodology used.) It should also be noted that a listing of both Arab and Jewish populations for a given village generally denotes the existence of a Jewish settlement within the boundaries of the lands recorded for the village in question. The 1931 population figures and the number of houses (1931) are from the Census of Palestine, 1931, the last census carried out in Mandatory Palestine.


II. The Village Before 1948

The core of this section has been derived from al-Dabbagh's Biladuna Filastin and from Al-Mawsu'a al-Filastiniyya, which are not specifically cited so as to avoid cluttering the text. The geographical setting was provided by the field research teams and sometimes supplemented by these two sources (particularly in the cases of Gaza, Jaffa, and Ramla districts).

The road and transportation links were taken from the following maps: Palestine, produced by the Arab Studies Society (1988); Kharitat Filastin published by al-Sabbagh (1985); and Palestine and Transjordan prepared by the U.S. Army (1944).

The information on the Hebrew and Crusader periods was primarily drawn from the Encyclopedia Judaica (1971). G.W. Bowersock of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University, acted as advisor on the ancient, classical, and early Islamic historical background and reviewed and amended these portions of the text. The IPS is grateful to Professor Bowersock for his assistance.

Aside from al-Dabbagh and Al-Mawsu 'a, the basic sources used for the periods following the Arab conquest of Palestine in the seventh century were al-Khalidi (1968), Hiitteroth and Abdulfattah (1977), and C.R. Conder and H.H. Kitchener (1881). Khalidi's Ahl al-'ilm wa al-hukm fi rif Filastin (Scholars and Rulers from the Palestinian Countryside), arranged alphabetically by village, includes extracts relating to individual villages taken from a wide variety of Arabic sources. These include works of classical Arab geographers, historians, and travelers up to the Ottoman conquest (drawn principally from the work of the Palestinian Jesuit scholar Marmarji [1951]), supplemented by a number of hitherto untapped sources. The most important of these are the Tabakat, a series of biographical collections by century for the fifteenth through eighteenth centuries; the encyclopedic work about social and political life in the Jerusalem and Hebron districts by the fifteenth-century Jerusalemite scholar Mujir aI-Din al-Hanbali, and especially the accounts of three Sufi mystics (Nabulsi, Bakri, and Luqaymi) whose travels throughout the Near East in the late seventeenth and first third of the eighteenth centuries included a number of voyages in Palestine. We also made use of the historico-geographical compendium of references in Islamic literature to localities in Palestine by the nineteenth-century British orientalist Le Strange (1965). (See the bibliography for a chronological listing of early Arab and Muslim geographers and chroniclers).

In addition to the above, the Palestinian countryside was looked at through two widely spaced vantage points: the Ottoman "detailed registers" from the late sixteenth century, and the results of nineteenth-century British exploration efforts in Palestine. The Ottoman daftar-i mufassal, compiled in 1596 by the Ottoman census takers for tax purposes, served as the primary source material for Hutteroth's and Abdulfattah's A Historical Geography of Palestine, a portrait of mainly rural society – settled and nomadic – at the end of the sixteenth century with detailed discussions of economic activity, administrative divisions, the taxation system, and population distribution. The Ottoman registers, which list some 145 of the villages in the present book, include population figures, production yields, and administrative locations – both the liwa' (province) and its subunit, the nahiya – or individual villages. The Ottoman administrative units of the time are shown on map 6.

Conder's and Kitchener's Survey of Western Palestine was based on the results of the field survey undertaken by the Palestine Exploration Fund from 1871 to 1878. Villages are arranged alphabetically by district, followed by entries of varying length that include such information as topographical descriptions, the religious affiliation of the inhabitants, crops, water supply, architectural details, and sometimes historical comments especially relating to the biblical and Crusader periods. Descriptions by travelers are also given for certain villages. Some 225 of the villages in our text are described in the Survey.

For economic material on the villages, Hadawi's Village Statistics 1945 was used, particularly the tables giving breakdowns for each village of the land taxation classifications according to land use.

Palestine Gazette Extraordinary (no. 1375,1944) supplied information on archeological relics.


III. Occupation and Depopulation

Given the purpose and format of the book, and particularly its deliberate exclusion of any discussion of the fall of the cities and towns, no attempt has been made at an integrated military account of the 1948 war, even at the village level. Instead, a select number of sources both Israeli and Arab have been juxtaposed without attempting to reconcile or evaluate them.

The Israeli side is represented by official and revisionist versions. The two voluminous official accounts, Sefer Toldot ha-Haganah (History of the Haganah) and Toldot Milchemet ha-Qomemiyyut (History of the War of Independence), cover respectively the periods from 29 November 1947 to 15 May 1948 and from 15 May to the Armistice. These works, compiled by the Israeli military establishment, have not appeared in English, but were meticulously translated into Arabic and published in full3 in a single volume by the Institute for Palestine Studies in 1984; the Arabic translation was used in preparing our text, but the page numbers given refer to the pagination of the original Hebrew sources. While these volumes were concerned with the overall prosecution of the war, incidental reference is made to about one fourth of the villages mentioned on our list.

The revisionist account is by the scholar Benny Morris (1987) who, while denying any Zionist/lsraeli prior intent in the 1948 Palestinian exodus, has nevertheless produced a work that stands out for the range and quality of the archival material it uses and for the objectivity with which it deals with issues other than prior intent. Moreover, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, while not strictly speaking a military history, is by far the most comprehensive of all the works cited in terms of the villages covered, with some mention of the large majority of those on the IPS list. Together, these works provide what could be said to be a basic minimal version of the occupation and depopulation of the villages from the Israeli perspective.

On the Arab side, no single military work of a synthetic nature exists comparable to those on the Israeli side; 'Arif al-'Arif's already-mentioned six-volume work, while relatively comprehensive, is of limited use for our purposes because of its primarily political focus. The wide range of Arab works on the 1948 war, especially political and military memoirs, contemporary newspaper accounts, and material in archives both private and public, are not easily accessible. Limitations of time and resources forced us to select a small number of eyewitness accounts from different areas of the country to show how matters appeared at the time from the Arab point of view. For the southern area, these accounts include those of Tariq al-Ifriqi (1951), the Sudanese commander of the Palestinian irregulars operating in the Gaza area from February to 15 May 1948; Gamal 'Abd al-Nasir (1955), later president of Egypt, a staff officer with the Egyptian expeditionary force on the southern front from 15 May to the Armistice Agreements, and Muhammad 'Abd al-Mun'im (1968), an Egyptian officer with this same force who based his chronicle on his own experience as well as interviews and documents. For the central area, we used the memoirs of Fawzi al-Qawuqji, the Lebanese commander of the Arab Liberation Army, the 5,000-strong force of irregulars organized by the Arab League that entered Palestine in small formations between January and May 1948. For the northern area, we used Nafez Nazzal (1978), who was not an eyewitness himself but who relied on the personal testimonies of over 100 eyewitnesses for his account ofthe depopulation of 32 villages in the Galilee.

Two newspapers were also used. Filastin was the leading daily of Palestine, and although it ceased publication in April 1948 with the fall of Jaffa, where it was based, it is important for its detailed coverage of the crucial period marking the start of the Palestinian exodus. We also used The New York Times, the correspondents of which accompanied the Israeli forces, as a source for the entire year.

The ten sources used in this section are identified in the text by letters cited in the List of Abbreviations in the front of the book.


IV. Israeli Settlement on Village Land

To determine the presence on village lands of Israeli settlements, the 1946 map accompanying the Palestine Index to Villages and Settlements (scale 1:250,000), which clearly shows the village sites as well as the boundaries of each village's territory was superimposed on a 1988 map showing Israeli settlements put out by the Center for the Mapping of Israel (scale 1:250,000). It might be noted that due to the irregular configurations of village land holdings, settlements close to one village site can in fact be located on lands belonging to a village at considerable distance.

While this section focuses on the settlements established on village lands after the 1948 war, the nearby pre-1948 settlements are also mentioned. It should be noted that in many cases, these settlements moved in to take over lands of the villages that had been their neighbors following the hostilities. (For a listing of post-1948 Israeli settlements on village lands and their political affiliations, see Appendix V.)


V. Photographs

Although anywhere from five to thirty photographs were taken of each of the sites visited, only 230 of the 418 villages, or 55 percent, are depicted in the book for reasons of space; the unpublished photographs are on file at the Institute for Palestine Studies, Washington, D.C. Photographs are dated, as the condition of the village sites is subject to change. It should also be borne in mind that the photographs have been selected to "show" something-the remains of houses, public structures, current uses of what remains. In this sense, they are not representative, as the vast bulk of the photographs show largely empty sites. The book also includes photographs of twenty villages before 1948. The great majority of these photographs – 23 of a total of 34 – came from the Matson Collection at the Library of Congress. These were taken between 1898 and 1946 by Eric Matson, a Swedish-American photographer who lived in Jerusalem; those taken before 1935 were not dated and are labelled simply "pre-1935" in the captions. The remaining pre-1948 photos are from the collections of the Palestine Exploration Fund and the Imperial War Museum, both in London, the PLO Information Center in Beirut, and the Middle East Center at St. Antony's College, Oxford. To the librarians in all these collections, the Institute expresses its gratitude.

  • 1. British Mandate officials translated the Ottoman Arabic term qada' as "subdistrict" and called the larger unit encompassing it, the liwa', "district." Palestine as of 1945 was divided into six "districts" – Galilee, Haifa, Samaria, Lydda, Jerusalem, and Gaza which in turn were divided into sixteen subdistricts: Acre, Beersheba, Baysan, Gaza, Haifa, Hebron, Jaffa, Jinin, Jerusalem, Nablus, Nazareth, Ramallah, Ramla, Safad, Tiberias, and Tulkarm. Prior to 1945, the country had had three districts – Southern, Jerusalem, and Northern. These were divided into eighteen subdistricts – the sixteen already mentioned plus Bethlehem and Jericho. Government statistics about villages were gathered at the level of the qada' and were recorded under this heading; hence the qada' is the most important unit for data on village life. We translate the term as "district" in preference to the more precise but clumsier subdistrict.
  • 2. For a discussion of land tenure in Palestine and categories of public land, see A Survey of Palestine, volume I, chapter viii.
  • 3. Sefer Toldot ha-Haganah is a three-volume work covering the entire history of the organization; the IPS translated only the chapters relating to the 1948 war.


'Abd al-Mun'im, Muhammad (1968), Asrar 1948. (The Secrets of 1948). Cairo: Maktabat al-Qahira al-haditha.

D 1/1

al-Dabbagh, Mustafa (1973), Biladuna Filastin (Our Homeland, Palestine). Volume One, Part One. Second Printing. Hebron: Matbu'at rabitat al-jami'iyyin bi-muhafazat aI-Khalil.

D 1/2

al-Dabbagh, Mustafa (1975), Biladuna Filastin (Our Homeland, Palestine). Volume One, Part Two. Hebron: Matbu'at rabitat al-jami'iyyin bi-muhafazat aI-Khalil.

D 2/2

al-Dabbagh, Mustafa (1985), Biladuna Filastin (Our Homeland, Palestine). Volume Two, Part Two: Gaza. Hebron: Matbu'at rabitat al-jami'iyyin bi-muhafazat aI-Khalil.

D 3/2

al-Dabbagh, Mustafa (1985), Biladuna Filastin (Our Homeland, Palestine). Volume Three, Part Two: Nablus. Second printing. Hebron: Matbu'at rabitat al-jami'iyyin bi-muhafazat aI-Khalil.

D 4/2

al-Dabbagh, Mustafa (1972), Biladuna Filastin (Our Homeland, Palestine). Volume Four, Part Two: Jaffa. Hebron: Matbu'at rabitat al-jami'iyyin bi-muhafazat al-Khalil.

D 5/2

al-Dabbagh, Mustafa (1986) Biladuna Filastin (Our Homeland, Palestine). Volume Five, Part Two: Hebron. Hebron: Matbu'at rabitat al-jami'iyyin bi-muhafazat aI-Khalil.

D 6/2 - 7/2

al-Dabbagh, Mustafa (1974) Biladuna Filastin (Our Homeland, Palestine). Volume Six, Part Two and Volume Seven, Part Two: Galilee. Hebron: Matbu'at rabitat al-jami'iyyin bi-muhafazat aI-Khalil.

D 8/2 - 10/2

al-Dabbagh, Mustafa (1974) Biladuna Filastin (Our Homeland, Palestine). Volume Eight, Part Two, Volume Nine, Part Two, and Volume Ten, Part Two: Jerusalem. Hebron: Matbu'at rabitat al-jami'iyyin bi-muhafazat al-Khalil.


Filastin (leading Palestinian daily published in Jaffa from 1911 to April 1948).


'Abd al-Nasir, Gamal (1955) Harb Filastin (the Palestine War). Akhir Sa'a (Cairo), 9 March 1955. See also Walid Khalidi (trans.) (1972) "Nasser's Memoirs of the First Palestine War." Journal of Palestine Studies II (2):3-32.

Hut. and Abd.

Hütteroth, Wolf-Deiter and Kamal Abdulfattah (1977), Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft.


al-Ifriqi, M. Tariq (1951), Al-Mujahidun fi ma'arik Filastin (Fighters in the Battles of Palestine). Damascus: Dar al-yaqza al-'arabiyya.


Morris, Benny (1987), The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem 1947-1949. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.


Nazzal, Nafez (1978), The Palestinian Exodus from Galilee, 1948. Beirut, Lebanon: Institute for Palestine Studies.


The New York Times


Place Names in Israel. A Compendium of Place Names in Israel Compiled from Various Sources (1962). Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.


al-Qawuqji, Fawzi (1972) "Memoirs, 1948." Part One. Journal of Palestine Studies I (4):27-58. Part Two. Journal of Palestine Studies II (1):3-33.


al-'Arif, 'Arif (1956-1960), Al-Nakba (The Catastrophe). 6 Volumes. Beirut and Sidon: AI-Maktaba al-'Asriyya.


Dinur, Ben-Zion, Yehuda Slutski, Sha'ul Avigur, Yitzchaq Ben-Tzvi, and Yisra'el Galili (1972), Sefer Toldot ha-Haganah (The History of the Haganah). Tel Aviv: 'Am 'Oved.


Conder, Claude Reignier and H. H. Kitchener (1881), The Survey of Western Palestine. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.


Israeli Ministry of Defense (1959), Toldot Milchemet ha-Qomemiyyut (The History of the War of Independence). Tel Aviv: Marakhot.


For Arabic, we have adopted the Library of Congress system of transliteration, but without diacritics. For Anglicized place names, we used the spelling of Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (e.g., "Gaza" instead of "Ghazza"). (The British Mandate's quite different transliteration of village names is given in parentheses in the list of the Appendix "Palestinian Villages Depopulated in 1948: A Comparison of Sources".) For Hebrew, we used the American Language/Library of Congress system, again without diacritics. When a word has passed into English, we used the English spelling (e.g., "kibbutz" rather than "qibbutz").